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Tanzania Leo タンザニア レオ 

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    タンザニア レオの記事は、タンザニアに住む若者たちが寄稿しています。ただし推敲・検証されたものではありませんので、彼らの考え方を知る参考とするか、訳文の下にあげてあるポイントなどをもとに、考察を深めていくことが必要と思われます。

    Toleo la 1-6: Tulikotoka   @Respicius Shumbusho Damian

    Kundi la tatu ni la wachapakazi na wapenda maendeleo ya wote, lakini bado tu hawawezi kufanikiwa peke yao kwani wanawahitaji sana hawa wa kundi la kwanza ambao pamoja na ubovu wao wote tuliousikia wana siraha iitwayo uzoefu. Hawa ni kama Waganga wanaotegemewa sana kufanya tambiko siku hadi siku ili serikali yetu iwepo na nchi yetu izidi kuwa na amani (japo mimi imani hii naona siyo ya kweli). Muda mwingine viongozi wetu wazuri wanatambua kuwa tunaweza kuendelea bila kuwa na watu hawa, lakini wanaogopa kuwatia aibu kwani waliheshimiwa tangia taifa letu lipate uhuru. Kwa maana nyingine; wao ni picha ya taifa, uchafu walionao ndani yao ukiwekwa wazi kwa umma na watu kutoka nje watagundua kuwa taifa na serikali yetu ina uchafu uliojificha ndani yake ambao kwa kuwa na macho madogo hawawezi kuuona.

    タンザニア レオ「今日のタンザニア」 1‐6 レスピシウス・スンブショ・ダミアン記

     第3のグループは、職務に励み、全体の発展を望んでいる。しかし彼らだけで成功を手にすることはできず、というのも、かれらは、わたしたちが常日頃武器を持っていると耳にしているような腐敗とともにいる第1にグループの人々を、必要としているからである。
     彼らは日々、政府と国が平穏でありますようにと儀式を行うことに依っている伝統医のようである(ぼく個人的には、このような信仰は本当ではないと思う)。
     別の時には、よき施政者は、そのようなやからなしでやっていけると思っているのだが、独立以来、敬意を払われてきた彼らを恥さらしにすることを、さすがに恐れてはいる。
     別の意味では、彼らは国をうつす鏡である。彼らの内なる腐敗は、民衆には明白で、外部者にも、いちべつではわからないかもしれないが、国と政府が、内にかくされた腐敗を持っていることに気がつくだろう。


    コメント

    Jamani angalieni eti na huyu ni mwakilishi wa watanzania bungeni anaitwa ruth msafiri blasio wa muleba kaskazini. mbona inashangaza jamani. hivi ni kweli kuna hoja aliyosaidia kufikisha bungeni nyinyi watu za muleba???????????????
    • CYPRIAN MAGILANE
    • 2010/04/20 2:11 AM
    UJASIRIAMALI

    KUANZISHA NA KUENDESHA BIASHARA KWA MAFANIKIO


















    Mbiiji S. Magesa
    na
    Respicius Shumbusho Damian
    Open Mind Tanzania
    S.L.P 4859
    DAR ES SALAAM
    Simu: 0222773254
    Mobile: 0713 380 970 / 0714 669 044
    Barua pepe: openmidtz@yahoo.com
























    UJASIRIAMALI
    KUANZISHA NA KUENDESHA BIASHARA KWA MAFANIKIO

    Somo la kwanza: MISINGI YA UJASIRIAMALI Jumapili 29/11/2009

    1. Maana ya ujasiriamali na biashara

    2. Sifa kuu za wajasiriamali

    &#8226; Wajasiriamali hijiamini
    &#8226; Wajasiriamali wana uwezo wa kufanya vitu vingi
    &#8226; Ni wabunifu
    &#8226; Wana malengo ya mbali
    &#8226; Wako tayari kubeba hasara
    &#8226; Wanaona mbali
    &#8226; Ni waaminifu
    &#8226; Hutambua fursa zilizopo na kuzifanyiaa kazi

    3. Faida ya kuwa mjasiriaamli

    &#8226; Kupata mapato zaidi ya kifedha
    &#8226; Kuchangia maendeleo katika jamii
    &#8226; Kuwa huru katika maamuzi
    &#8226; Kuwa na heshima
    &#8226; Kuridhika

    4. Changamoto za kuwa mjasiriamali

    &#8226; Kuanguka kwa bashara
    &#8226; Kutokuwa na uhakika wa kupata kipato
    &#8226; Kufanya kazi masaa mengi
    &#8226; Kuwa na hali ya chini ya maisha ili mwanzoni ili kufikia lengo
    &#8226; Kutokuwa na kinga ya kifedha
    &#8226; Upweke
    &#8226; Vikwazo vya kifamilia
    &#8226; Urasmi katika mfumo wa biashara

    5. Mambo yanayo wasukuma watu kuwa wajasiriamali

    &#8226; Kutambuliwa kwa nafasi ya wajasiriamali katika ajamii
    &#8226; Kufundishwa kwa elimu ya ujasiamali kaika vyuo
    &#8226; Maendeleo ya Teknolojia
    &#8226; Ongezeko la watu na shughuli za kiuchumi
    &#8226; Kubadirika kwa mfumo wa maisha
    &#8226; Kuwepo kwa fursa za kiuchumi za kimataifa
    &#8226; Kupunguzwa/kustaafu kazi
    &#8226; Msukumo toka kwa wateja.

    6. Makosa makubwa kumi (10) katika ujasiriamali

    &#8226; Kuwa na usimamizi mbovu wa biashara
    &#8226; Kutokuwa na uzoefu katika biashara
    &#8226; Usimamizi mbaya wa fedha
    &#8226; Mbinu legevu za masoko
    &#8226; Kutokuwa na mpango mkakati wa biashashara
    &#8226; Kutokuwa na eneo sahihi la biashara
    &#8226; Njia mbaya za udhibiti wa bidhaa
    &#8226; Upangaji wa bei usio sahihi.

    Zoezi.
    1. Taja matatizo matano yanayozikumba biashara zifuatazo
    (a) Saluni za kunyoa nywele
    (b) Usindikaji na uuzaji wa mafuta ya alizeti

    2. Je ni njia zipi unaweza kuzitumia ili kushinda matatizo yanayozikumba
    biashara hizo.
    NB: Wajibu: Tengeneza kisanduku kidogo cha duduliza chenye kutumia
    kufuli na uje nacho jumapili ijayo kikiwa na Tshs. 1000/= ndani.







    UJASIRIAMALI
    KUANZISHA NA KUENDESHA BIASHARA KWA MAFANIKIO

    Somo la pili : KUTAMBUA WAZO NA FURSA ZA BIASHARA Jumapili 6/12/2009

    1. Wazo la biashara: fikra yeyote iliyopo tayari au imebuniwa inayoonesha uhitaji wa bidhaa au huduma

    &#8226; je linavutia wateja
    &#8226; je linatekelezeka
    &#8226; je linaweza kuwawahi washindani
    &#8226; je kuna raslimali za kutosha kutekeleza wazo lako

    2. Vyanzo vya fursa za biashaara: Ili wazo kuwa fursa lazima liwe na.

    &#8226; Matatizo ya watu/changamoto
    &#8226; Mabadiriko mfano. Makazi mapya, sera mpya, miradi mipya
    &#8226; Ugunduzi/uvumbuzi
    &#8226; Ushindani

    3. Kupanua wigo wa fursa za biashara

    &#8226; Kusafiri sehemu mbalimbali
    &#8226; Kukutana na watu, kubadirishana nao mawazo
    &#8226; Kujifunza lugha mbalimbali
    &#8226; Kusoma vitabu, majarida, magazeti
    &#8226; Kuudhuria mihadhara

    ZOEZI: Fikiria mawazo 5 ya biashara kasha chagua mawili tu uyachambue kupata
    fursa ya biashara



















    UJASIRIAMALI
    KUANZISHA NA KUENDESHA BIASHARA KWA MAFANIKIO

    1. Somo la kwanza: MISINGI YA UJASIRIAMALI, Jumapili 29/11/2009
    2. Somo la pili: KUTAMBUA WAZO NA FURSA ZA BIASHARA, Jumapili 6/12/2009
    3. Somo la tatu: AINA NA MIUNDO YA BIASHARA, Jumapili 13/12/2009
    4. somo la nne: MCHANGANUO WA MASOKO, Jumapili 20/12/2009
    5. Somo la tano: TARATIBU ZA KISHERIA KATIKA BIASHARA, Jumapili 27/12/2009
    6. somo la sita: UCHANGANUZI WA VIFAA NA BIDHAA KATIKA BIASHARA, Jumapili 3/1/2010
    7. Somo la saba: UCHAGUZI NA UANDAJI WA ENEO LA BIASHARA, Jumapili10/1/2010
    8. Somo la nane: KUKINGA BIASHARA YAKO, Jumapili 17/1/2010

    9. Somo la tisa: USIMAMIZI WA BIASHARA NA UPATIKANAJI WA WAFANYAKAZI, Jumapili 24/1/2010


    10. Somo la kumi: MASOKO NA UVUMISHAJI WA BIASHARA, Jumapili 31/1/2010

    11. Somo la Kumi na moja: UTUNZAJI WA KUMBUKUMBU ZA BIASHARA, Jumapili 7/2/2010


    12. Somo la kumi na mbili : UPATIKANAJI NA USIMAMIZI WA MITAJI KWA AJILI YA BIASHARA YAKO, Jumapili 14/2/2010

    13. Somo la Kumi na Tatu: UANDAAJI WA MCHANGANUO WA BIASHARA, Jumapili 21/2/2010
















    UJASIRIAMALI
    KUANZISHA NA KUENDESHA BIASHARA KWA MAFANIKIO

    MUHTASARI WA MADA MBALIMBALI ZITAKAZO FUNDISHWA KATIKA KOZI YA UJASIRIAMALI

    NA SOMO KICHWA CHA SOMO SIKU NA TAREHE YA SOMO
    1 Somo la 1 MISINGI YA UJASIRIAMALI Jumapili 29/11/2009
    2 Somo la 2 JINSI YA KUTAMBUA WAZO SAHIHI NA FURSA ZA BIASHARA Jumapili 06/12/2009

    3 Somo la 3 AINA NA MIUNDO MBALIMBALI YA BIASHARA Jumapili 13/12/2009
    4 Somo la 4 MCHANGANUO WA MASOKO Jumapili 20/12/2009
    5 Somo la 5 KUTAMBUA TARATIBU ZA KISHERIA KATIKA BIASHARA Jumapili 27/12/2009

    6 somo la 6 UCHANGANUZI WA VIFAA NA BIDHAA ZA BIASHARA Jumapili 03/01/2010
    7 Somo la 7 MBINU ZA KUCHAGUA NA KUANDAA ENEO LA BIASHARA Jumapili 10/01/2010
    8 Somo la 8 JINSI YA KUKINGA BIASHARA ISIANGUKE Jumapili 17/01/2010
    9 Somo la 9 USIMAMIZI WA BIASHARA NA UPATIKANAJI WA WAFANYAKAZI Jumapili 24/01/2010
    10 Somo la 10 MASOKO NA UVUMISHAJI WA BIASHARA Jumapili 31/01/2010

    11 Somo la 11 UTUNZAJI WA KUMBUKUMBU ZA BIASHARA Jumapili 07/02/2010
    12 Somo la 12 UPATIKANAJI NA USIMAMIZI WA MITAJI KWA AJILI YA BIASHARA Jumapili 14/02/2010
    13 Somo la 13 UANDAAJI WA MICHANGANUO YA BIASHARA INAOFANIKIWA Jumapili 21/02/2010

    Imeandaliwa na: Mbiiji S. Magesa
    Open Mind Tanzania
    S.L.P 4859
    DAR ES SALAAM
    Simu: 0222773254
    Mobile: 0713 380 970 / 0714 669 044
    Barua pepe: openmidtz@yahoo.com










    UJASIRIAMALI
    KUANZISHA NA KUENDESHA BIASHARA KWA MAFANIKIO

    Somo la tatu: AINA NA MIUNDO YA BIASHARA, Jumapili 13/12/2009

    1. Utangulizi:
    Huna budi kufahamu miundo mbalimbali ya kibiaashara ili iwe rahisi kwako baadaye kufanya uamuzi sahihi wa muundo unaokufa. Muundo wa biashara ambao mjasiriamali anaouchagua leo ndio unaosimamia Mstakabari wake katika biashara. Somo hili limeandaliwa kukusaidia kuchambua kwa undani faida na hasara za miundo mbalimbali ya biashara ili kukusaidia kufanya maamuzi sahihi juu ya muuundo utakaouchagua kwa ajili ya mradi wako wa biashara. Kwa sababu mabadiriko toka muundo mmoja wa biashara kwenda mwingine ni magumu, hughalimu fedha na muda hivyo uangalifu unahitajika katika kufanya maamuzi.

    2. Mambo ya kuzingatia katika kuchagua muundo wa biashara:
    &#8226; Kuzingatia kiasi cha kodi, Dhamana katika biashara na madeni (liability exposure), Mtaji wa kuanzishia biashara, Uendeshaji, Gharama za uanzishaji, Malengo ya biashara, Ufanisi

    3. Aina za biashara kwa wajasiriamali

    Kwa mujibu wa sera ya taifa ya mwaka 2003 ya kuendeleza wajasiriamali wadogo na wa kati biashara imegawanyika katika makundi manne kwa kuzingatia vigezo vya idadi ya waajiriwa na mtaji uliopo kama ifuatavyo.
    Na Aina ya biashara Idadi ya waajiriwa Kiasi cha mtaji uliopo
    1 Biashara ndogo sana 1 hadi 4 Tzs 1 -5,000,000
    2 Biashara ndogo 5 hadi 49 Tzs 5,000,000 &#8211; 200,000,000
    3 Biashara za kati 50 hadi 99 Tzs 200,000,000 -8,000,000,000
    4 Biashara kubwa 100 na zaidi Zaidi ya Tzs 8,000,000,000

    NB: mamraka ya mapato huweka madaraja ya walipa kodi kwa kuzingatia
    1. kiasi cha mauzo kwa mwaka
    2. kiasi cha kodi kinacholipwa kwa mwaka.

    4. Mchanganuo wa Miundo ya biashara

    a. Biashara ya mtu peke yake
    Biashara inayomilikiwa na kuendeshwa na mtu binafsi aidha akisaidiwa na mke au familia kwa ujumla. Hizo ndizo biashara zinazofanya na watu wengi.
    Faida zake:
    &#8226; Rahisi kuanzisha &#8211; uwe na mtaji, kata leseni jisajiri, anza biashara.
    &#8226; Wewe ndiye mwenye kauli ya mwisho juu maamuzi mbalimbali ya biashara yako
    &#8226; Faida yote ni yako
    &#8226; Rahisi kusitisha biashara
    &#8226; Hakuna taratibu nyingi za kisheria.
    &#8226;
    Hasara zake:
    Ukipata matatizi ni rahisi biashara yako kuyumba na kufa, Kutopata mchango wa stadi mbalimbali za biashara, Kujisikia mpweke, Kiwango kidogo cha mtaji, Hakuna ukomo wa dhamana ya madeni

    b. Biashara ya ubia:
    Uanzishwa na kumilikiwa na watu wawili au zaidi wasiozidi 20
    Faida zake:
    &#8226; Ni rahisi kuanzisha, Kuongezeka kwa utaalamu kila mbia huchangia ujuzi wake, Faida hugawanywa usiokuwa na mashariri, Kuondezeka kwa mtaji, Hubabari mabadiriko kirahisi, Huvuta mabia wengine kuleta mitaji, Upo unafuu wa kodi.
    Hasara zake
    &#8226; Kila mbia ana wajibu wa kulipa madeni biashara inapofilisika
    &#8226; Migogoro huweza kutokea
    &#8226; Hukosa uendelevu pale ambapo mbia anapokufa

    c. Biashara ya kampuni:
    Zina dhima katika biashara na madeni
    Faida zake:
    &#8226; Kuna ukomo wa dhamana katika madeni.
    &#8226; Kuna ongezeko la mtaji
    &#8226; Hakuna ukomo katika uendeshaji
    &#8226; Umiliki waweza kuhamishika kirahisi.
    Hasara zake
    &#8226; Uanzishaji wake ni mgumu, Kodi hulipwa mara mbili, Waanzilishi wanaweza kupoteza umiliki, Ni ngumu katika uendeshaji wake.

    UJASIRIAMALI

    KUANZISHA NA KUENDESHA BIASHARA KWA MAFANIKIO

    Somo la nne: MCHANGANUO WA MASOKO, Jumapili 20/12/2009

    A. MAANA YA SOKO
    Ni wateja ulionao, unaotarajia kuwa nao na wale uliokuwa nao wenye matakwa na uwezo wa kununua bidhaa au huduma zako. Hawa wateja waweza kuwa watu, taasisi, mashirika, kikundi au kampuni mbalimbali wenye kuhitaji na wana uwezo wa kununua bidhaa au huduma zako.

    Mchanganuo wa soko:
    Ni kitendo cha kugawanya soko ulilo nalo katika makundi kwa kuzungatia vigezo mbalimbali. Makundi ya masoko yaweza kugawanywa kwa kuzingatia mambo yafuatayo:
    (a) Hali ya kijiografia: mitaa, kijiji, wilaya, mikoa nk.
    (b) Mchanganuo wa watu: kiumri, kijinsia, kaya, kipato, kazi, elimu,, dini, rangi, kitaifa na tabaka kijamii n.k

    Kwa ujumla wateja waweza kugawanywa katika sehemu mbili
    1. Wateja wanaonunua kwa matumizi halisi/ binafsi (consumer market)
    2. Wateja wanaonunua ili kwenda kuuza au kutengeneza bidhaa nyingine. (Business-to-business market)

    B. WATEJA WALENGWA
    Baada ya kutambua na kuchambua ukubwa wa soko, mjasiriamali huchagua ni wateja gain watakuwa walengwa
    hasa wa bidhaa / huduma zake, hawa wataitwa wateja walengwa. Mjasiriamali atapaswa kuelekeza nguvu zake
    za masoko kwa hawa matejwa walengwa.

    Maelekezo muhimu juu ya kuchagua soko.
    &#8226; Soko lako lazima liwe linapimika
    &#8226; Soko lako lapaswa kuwa la kutosha ili kuweza kurudisha gharama na kukuingizia faida
    &#8226; Soko lako lapaswa kuwa linaweza kufikika kirahisi
    &#8226; Soko lako lapapwsa kuwa makini

    C. KUTAFUTA MASOKO” MARKERTING.
    Ni mcakato mzima wa kuhakikisha kuwa bidhaa au huduma inayotakiwa inafika katika soko katika wakati muafaka, na kwa bei inayotakiwa na kudumishsa uhusiano na wateja. Lengo la kutafuta soko ni kutengeneza mauzo. Na kipimo chake ni kuongezeka kwa mauzo.

    Wazo la kutafuta masoko lina dhana tatu.
    1. Kutambua wateja : wanahitaji nini….
    2. Kutambua huduma: wateja kutambua huduma/bidhaa na kuwaridhisha.
    3. Kutambua faida: kuuza bidhaa ambayo wateja nataka na yenye faida, kuwezesha ukuaji wa biashara.

    D: UTAFITI WA MASOKO
    Baada ya kuwa na wazo la biashara, kutambua fursa iliyopo ni vyema kufanya utafiti wa soko la bidhaa au huduma utakayouza. Taarifa kuhusu soko no muhimu sana kama ilivyo rasilimali nyingine katika biashara.
    Utafiti wa masoko ni ukusanyaji wa taarifa kuhusu masoko, uwekaji wa kumbukumbu mbalimbali za masoko na uchanganuaji wa taarifa hizo kwa ajili ya kuandaa mpango mzuri wa masoko. Utafiti huu uhusu taarifa juu ya soko, wateja, na washindani.

    Mambo ya kuzingatia katika utafiti wa masoko:
    &#8226; Wateja wako watarajiwa wakoje? Umri, elimu, jinsia
    &#8226; Wateja wako wanaishi maeneo gain?
    &#8226; Kwanini wananunua bidhaa au huduma toka kwako?
    &#8226; Je wana uwezo kwa kununua?
    &#8226; Je huduma/bidhaa yako inahitajika?
    &#8226; Bei yako inaridhishsa
    &#8226; Biashara yako inafananaje na ya washindani. Nk.

    Zoezi: Kuna njia mbalimbali zinazoweza kutumika kutangaza bidhaa au huduma zako. Taja njia tano na
    uzifafanue kwa mifano














    UJASIRIAMALI

    KUANZISHA NA KUENDESHA BIASHARA KWA MAFANIKIO

    Somo la nne: MBINU ZA KUCHAGUA NA KUANDAA ENEO LA BIASHARA, Jumapili 20/12/2009

    Eneo la biashara: Katika biashara zite kubwa na ndogo uchaguzi wa eneo la biashara linalofaa ni jambo muhimu sana kuelekea kwenye mafanikio, maana maamuzi ya kufa au kuendelea kwa biashara hutokana na eneo la biashara. Alafu pia ni muhimu maana biashara nyingine hutumia mtaji mubwa, kununua eneo, kusimamisha najengo na mashine,vifaa mbalimbali. Wafanyabiashara wengi wakubwa kwa wadodo hutafuta maeneo ya biashara yanayoweza kufilika kirahisi na wateja wao na yaliyo mbali na washindani wao. Yote hayo ni muhimu sana kuzingatiwa wakati wa kutafuta eneo sahihi la biashara lakini ili kutambua mambo sahihi ya kuzingatia katika eneo la biashara ni vyema kwanza kujua aina ya biashara unayotakata kufanya. Je ni biashara ya rejareja, jumla, au kiwanda cha uzarishaji.

    Mambo ya kuzingatia katika eneo sahihi la biashhara kwa ujumla yaweza kuwa:
    &#8226; Wateja walengwa
    &#8226; Idadi ya watu
    &#8226; Kodi za pango/ bei ya kununua eneo
    &#8226; Upatikanaji wa wafanyakazi
    &#8226; Mishahara ya wafanyakazi
    &#8226; Wagavi
    &#8226; Gharama za uendeshaji
    &#8226; Tabia ya eneo
    &#8226; Hali ya kiuchumi ya watu
    &#8226; Miundombinu mfano: maji, umeme,usafiri,
    &#8226; Kiwango cha kodi
    &#8226; Ukaribu na masoko hasa kwa biashara ya uzarishaji na ugawaji.
    &#8226; Sheria za nchi
    &#8226; Maegesho ya magari
    &#8226; Nafasi ya kupanuka

    Mjadala: Kuna faida gani na athari gani kufanyia shughili za biashara nyumbani? Je utazingatia mambo
    gani ili kufanyia biashara nyumbani.


    Kuandaa eneo la biashara:
    Ni kupanga jinsi bidhaa na shughuri zitakavyo endeshwa, hili ni muhimu sana maana uleta ufanisi wa utendaji, uongeza uzalishaji na mauzo na husaidia kuwa na wafanyakazi kwa muda mrefu.

    Mambo ya kuzingatia katika kuandaa eneo la biashasa:
    &#8226; Jengo: liwe kubwa la kutosha ili wateja ,wafanyakazi wawe na nafasi ya kuzunguka vizuri,eneo
    la stoo,office,chumba cha kupumzika, choo na bafu

    &#8226; Eneo la kuweka Bidhaa: Liwe la kutosha,safi, libadirishwe kila baada ya kipindi fulani.

    &#8226; Mlango/patio: Uwe mkubwa na wa kuvutia ili kuleta urahisi wa kila mteja kuona bidhaa na
    &#8226; Wakati wa kuingia na kutoka

    &#8226; Bango: liwe kubwa na liandikwe vizuri likionesha aina ya biashara au huduma gani inayotolewa.

    &#8226; Mwanga: Kuwepo na mwanga wa kutosha na wenye kuvutia.

    &#8226; Samani: Uwe na samani a kutosha katika biashara yako kwa ajili ya wateja na wafanyakazi

    Zoezi: Tathimini faida na hasara ya moja kati ya njia zifuatazo za kupata jego la biashara.
    (a) Kujenga jengo jipya
    (b) Kununua jengo la zamani
    (c) Kukodi jingo



















































    UJASIRIAMALI
    KUANZISHA NA KUENDESHA BIASHARA KWA MAFANIKIO

    Somo la nane: JINSI YA KUKINGA BIASHARA ISIANGUKE, Jumapili 17/1/2010

    Je unatambua kuwa zaidi ya 30% ya biashara huanguka kwa ajili ya kutokuwa na watumishi waaminifu? Kila mwaka makosa ya wafanyakazi kuiba, kufanya ujambazi, au udokozi yamewaingiza hasara kubwa sana wajasiriamali wengi.

    Mbali na hayo kuna majanga mbalimbali kama vile ya moto, ajari, mafuriko nk. Huathiri sana ukuaji wa biashara ndogo na kubwa. Madhara huwa makubwa sana kwa biashara ambazo ni ndogo na mpya maana nyingi zao hazina uwezo wa kifedha.

    UDOKOZI:
    Hufanywa sana katika maduka ya rejareja. Hiki ni kitendo cha kuchukua bidhaa dukani bila kutoa malipo yeyote. Mwenye duka anapaswa kujua tabia na mbinu mbalimbali zinatumiwa katika udokozi.

    Njia za kuzuia udokozo:
    &#8226; Wafundishe wafanyakazi wako kuwatanbua wadokozi maarufu.
    &#8226; Duka liwe na mwanga wa kutosha na meza ya mbele (display) iwe fupi kuruhusu uwezo wa kuona wateja vizuri.
    &#8226; Tumia vio (too way mirrors)
    &#8226; Uwe na mlinzi mwenye sale.

    Jinsi ya kumshika na kushitaki mdokozi:
    &#8226; Umuone kwa macho akichukua kitu
    &#8226; Uwe na uwezo wa kudhibitisha kuwa bidhaa aliyodokoa inatoka dukani mwako kweli.
    &#8226; Dhibitisha kuwa bidhaa ilichukuliwa kwa kusudi ka kuibwa.
    &#8226; Dhibitisha kuwa bidhaa haikulipwa.

    WIZI UNAOFANYWA NA WAFANYAKAZI:
    Wizi katika biashara za rejareja kwa 75%-80% hufanywa na wafanyakazi. Wamiliki wengi wa biashara ndio hasa wanaosababisha wizi kwa kutokuwa na sera, usimamizi,mikakati ya ulinzi na adhabu kwa wafanyakazi wao.

    Zingatia mambo yafuatayo:
    &#8226; Simamia vizuri mgawanyo wa funguo na vifaa vya ulinzi.
    &#8226; Milango yeto isiyokuwa na matumizi ifungwe na makufuli.
    &#8226; Mara kwa mara uchafu uchunguzwe kabla haujamwangwa.
    &#8226; Hakikisha watu wawili au zaidi wanahusika na mfumo wa pesa.
    &#8226; Simamia vizuri upatikanaji wa watumishi kwa kutumia kanuni na sheria za ajira.

    UJAMBAZI: Ni wizi wa kutumia siraha huweza kusababisha hasara kubwa hata pengine kifo.

    Zingatia mambo yafuatayo:
    &#8226; Chagua eneo la biashara lililo sahihi.
    &#8226; Nyumba iwe imara.
    &#8226; Simamia utunzaji wa funguo.
    &#8226; Tumia kampuni zaulinzi
    &#8226; Tumia vifaa vya ulinzi
    &#8226; Weak mwanga wa kutosha katika eneo lako la biashara.
    &#8226; Uwe na sefu imara ya kutunzia fedha, funguo na nyaraka muhimu.

    UNYANGANYI: Kuchukuwa vitu kwa kutumia nguvu na vitisha, hivyo usitembee na pesa nyingi, tumia mfumo wa kibenki, tambua tabia mbalimbali za watu.

    MAJANGA:
    Moto, kimbunga, mafuriko ni majanga yanayoweza kusababisha hasara kubwa sana na biashara kuanguka na kufa. Ni vigumu kuyazuia lakini waweza kuyaepuka kwa kiasi fulani aidha kwa kuzingatia ushauri wa kitaalamu na kisheria.

    JINSI YA KUSHUGHULIKIA HADHARI ZA KIBIASHASHA.
    Huwezi kuzuia kabisa hadhari za kibiashara lakini waweza kupunguza athali zake kwa kiasi fuani. Mbinu mbalimbali za kupambana na hadhari za kibiashara ni kama ifuatavyo.
    1. Kuepuka hadhari (risk Avoidance): mfano weak duka mahali salama
    2. Kupunguza hadhari (risk reduction). Mfano: weka ving’amuzi wa moto, toa elimu, fanya ukarabati.
    3. Hamisha hadhali (risk transfer)kwa mwingine: tumia bima ya ajali, maisha, mali…..
    4. Beba hadhali mwenyewe (risk retention) jiweke akiba ya majanga.




























    UJASIRIAMALI
    KUANZISHA NA KUENDESHA BIASHARA KWA MAFANIKIO

    Somo la tisa : USIMAMIZI WA BIASHARA NA UPATIKANAJI WA WAFANYAKAZI, Jumapili 24/1/2010

    Katika masomo yaliyopita umeweza kujifunza mambo mbalimbali juu ya upatikanaji wa eneo sahihi la biashara, uandaaji wa jengo la biashara, kanunni za manunuzi ya vifaa na bidhaa, sasa tunageukia upande mwingine juu ya jinsi ambavyo hivyo vitu vyote vitatumika na ni nani atakayevitumia. Uendeshaji wa biashara na upatikanaji wa wafanyakazi ni jambo muhimu sana katika kukuza maendeleo ya biashara kwa mjasiriamali.
    Sera na kanuni na taratibu: Hakuna biashara itakayoanzishwa na kukua bila ya kuwa na sera, kanuni na taratibu za kusimamia biashara.
    Sera: Ni maelezo ya jumla jinsi biashara yako itakavyoendeshwa. Ndani ya sera waweza kuwa na:
    &#8226; Masaa ya kazi: panga kwa kuzingatia matakwa ya wateja, mauzo, hali ya wafanyakazi n.k.
    &#8226; Kuuza kwa mkopo: zingatia mambo matatu tabia ya mkopaji, uwezo wa kulipa na mtaji alionao. Mteja aweza kulipa kidogokidogo au mara moja.
    &#8226; Usambazaji: je inakuchukua muda gain bidha kufika kwa mteja na kwa njia gain nk.
    &#8226; Huduma kwa mteja: je una garanti, unapoje malalamiko ya wateja n.k
    &#8226; Usalama wa wafanyakazi na wateja: mafunzo, maonyo, vifaa vya kujikinga.

    Kupata wafanyakazi:
    Kwanza ainisha shughuli zote zitakazokuwepo kwenye biashara yako, andaa jedwari la uongozi, kisha andika kazi na wajibu wa kila mmoja, andaa utaratibu wa kupata wafanyakazi. Baada ya hayo yote kufanyika mjasirimali anapaswa kufanya yafuatayo:

    1. Weka viwango vya wafanyakazi uwatakao (put Employees Standards): Kumbuka wafanyakazi hupata taswira ya biashara yako kwa kuangalia jinsi wafanyakazi walivyo. Wafanyakazi wako ndio sura, sauti ubora wa kile unachouza.
    2. Kutoa matangazo ya kazi (Recruitment): Tafuta njia iliyo nzuri, rahisi na yenye gharam anafuu.
    3. Kuchagua wafanyakazi (Screening): Linganisha barua na Cv na aina ya kazi walioomba nauwezo wao.
    4. Usaili ( interview): Wale walionekana kuwa na vigezo waitwe kwenye usaili

    Malipo ya wafanyakazi (Pay and Benefits):
    Ili kuwavuta na kuhakikisha wafanyakazi hawakimbii unapaswa kufanya mambo mengi ya msingi lakini makubwa ni (a) Lipa wafanyakazi wako mishahara mizuri na vizuri na (b) toa malupulupu mazuri kwa watumishi wako kama vile kulipa gharama za pango, likizo zenye malipo, malipo ya uzeeni, bima ya afyan.k. Waweza lipa mishahara kwa kuzingatia kiasi cha uzarishaji, masaa yaliyotumika katika uzarishaji au kiwango kinachofanana kwa kila siku, wiki au mwezi.

    Mafunzo na kuendeleza wafanyakazi (Training and Development):
    Baada ya kupata wafanyakazi basi mafunzo yatolewe kwa kazi watakayofanya. Na baada na kipindi waweza kutengeneza mfumo wa kuendeleza uwezo wa utendaji wa wafanyakazi wako either kwa kuwapeleka kozo mbalimbali nk.

    UJASIRIAMALI
    Kubuni, kuanzisha na kuendesha biashara kwa mfanikia

    Somo la kumi: MASOKO NA UVUMISHAJI WA BIASHARA: Jumapili 14/2/2010

    Zingatia: Usidhani kwamba wateja walengwa, mahitaji yao, na washindani wako uliowainisha ulipokuwa unaanza biashara siku zote watabaki kama walivyo. Tabia ya wateja hubadirika, hali ya biashara hubadirika hivyo unapaswa kujua mabadiriko hayo na kutafuta njia mbadala, vinginevyo utapoteza wateja na kukosa fursa za biashara.

    Tambua: Dhumuni kuu la kutafuta masoko (markerting) ni kuridhisha wateja kwa kupata faida. Ili biashara yeyote ifanikiwe na kutengeneza faida ni lazima ielekeze nguvu zake zote katika kuwaridhisha wateja wake.

    Kwa kuzingatia kuwa siku zote biashara huweza kubadirika, mabadiriko yafuatayo yanaweza kusaidia ukuwaji na kuendelea kwa biashara.

    (a) Mabadiriko katika bidhaa au huduma unayouza:
    Jiulize ni bidhaa /huduma gani uuze? je itatofautianaje na washindani wako? utafanyaje wateja wako waitambue? Unapaswa kutambua kwamba mabadiriko yeyote katika bidhaa/huduma unazotoa yaweza kuondeza wateja au kukimbiza wateja hivyo uwe makini.
    Waweza: kuongeza bidhaaa mpya, kuondoa bidhaa,kubadiri bidhaa, kubadiri vifungashio, lebo au nembo.

    (b) Mabadiriko katika bei: Zingatia gharama za uzarishaji na mbinu za uuzaji.

    (c) Mabadiriko katika eneo la biashara: Ongeza maeneo mengine, fanya ukarabati, ongeza upatikanaji kwa kuongeza masaa ya kazi, badiri mbinu za usambazaji.
    (d) Mabadiriko katika mbinu za Uvimishaji:

    UVUMISHAJI:
    Ni mkakati unaotumiwa wa watu maafisa masoko katika kutoa taarifa na kuwakumbusha watu juu ya huduma/ bidhaa itolewayo na kuwashawishi wanunue. Mbinu mbalimbali za uvumishaji zinazotumika ni pamoja na: kujitangaza, kutumia wauzaji-wavumishaji, kuwa na mahusiano mema, na kutumia uuzaji uvumishaji.

    Hatua za kuzingatiwa katika kampeini ya uvumishaji:
    &#8226; Ainisha wateja wako
    &#8226; Ainisha malengo
    &#8226; Tambua bajeti ya uvumishaji
    &#8226; Tengeneza ujumbe.
    &#8226; Tekeleza mpango
    &#8226; Tathimini utekelezaji.
    Njia za uvumishaji:
    &#8226; Matangazo kwenye vyombo vyo habari: Advertising
    &#8226; Uuzaji wa ana kwa ana: Personal selling.
    &#8226; Uhusiano wa kijamii: Public relation
    &#8226; Uvumishaji uuzaji: Sales promotion: hutumia maonesho, udhamini wa mtukio,






    UJASIRIAMALI
    KUANZISHA NA KUENDESHA BIASHARA KWA MAFANIKIO

    Somo La 12 : UPATIKANAJI NA USIMAMIZI WA MITAJI KWA AJILI YA BIASHARA Jumapili 28/2/2010

    A. MTAJI NI NINI?
    Ni jumla ya vifaa, malighafi, machine, majengo na fedha inayotumika katka uzalizaji wa bidhaa au huduma mbalimbali.

    Kabla mjasiriamali hajafanya maamuzi ya kuwekeza anapasawa kutathimini kiasi cha mtaji kinachohitajika katika biashara yake. Katika kutathimini anapaswa kutengeneza bajeti. Kuna aina tatu za bajeti nazo ni:
    &#8226; Bajeti ya kuanzishia biashara (Capital budget): mamunuzi yanayohitaji pesa nyingi mfano. Machine, jingo nk.
    &#8226; Bajeti ya kuendeshea biashara( An operating( master) budget): hutumika kununua malighafi, kulipa wafanyakazi nk
    &#8226; Cash budget: hutumika kukadiria kiasi cha mzunguko wa pesa katika biashara. Huonekana kwenye mchanganuo wa biashara.
    “Kwa kweli unapaswa kufanya tathimini ya mapato, gharama na matumizi kabla hujaamua kiasi cha mtaji unaohitaji”.

    B. NJIA MBALIMBALI ZA KUPATA MITAJI:
    1. Mitaji kwa njia ya umilikaji (Equity sources)
    Mjasiriamali anapata mtaji kwa kuwaruhusu wengine kumiliki biashara.
    &#8226; Pesa zako binafsi ( Personal saving)
    &#8226; Pesa toka kwa marafiki au ndugu
    &#8226; Wawekezaji (private investors)
    &#8226; Wabia( partiners)

    2. Mitaji kwa njia ya kukopa (Debt sources)
    Mjasiriamlia anapata mtaji kwa njia ya kukopa pesa kwa kutoa riba katika mkopo aliochukua.
    &#8226; Benki:
    &#8226; Vyama vya akiba na mikopo
    &#8226; Bootstrapping: hutumika kwa kuondoa gharama zote zisizo za muhimu na unazitumia kama mtaji ( kukodi badala ya kujenda au kununua, kuwa na wafanyakazi wa muda)
    Baada ya kuainisha njia mbalimbali za kupata mitaji unapaswa kutambua masharti na mambo yanayozingatiwa ili kupata mkopo:

    Mambo yanayoangaliwa na wawekezaji:
    &#8226; Suala la uongozi
    &#8226; Suaala la faidal
    &#8226; Suala la masoko
    Mambo yanayoangaliwa na benki:
    &#8226; Tabia ya mkopaji( character)
    &#8226; Uwezo wa mkopaji( capacity) uwezo wa biashara kulipa mkopo
    &#8226; Mtaji( Capital) biashara isiwe na madeni mengi
    &#8226; Dhamana( collateral)
    &#8226; Mazingira ya biashara( condition) wateja, washindani, umilikaji, mahali biashara ilipo.

    C. USIMAMAMIZI WA MTAJI:
    &#8226; Angalia kwa na suala la kukopesha katika biashara
    &#8226; Jitahidi kufanya manunuzi ya bidhaa kwa mkopo au kwa gharama nafuu
    &#8226; Angalia suala lako la mali katika stoo( mali nyingine hufuinga mtaji
    &#8226; Kila pesa ya ziada iweke kwenye biashara
    &#8226; Malipo ya wafanyakazi yaangaliwe( tumia wafanyakazi wa muda au kukodi)
    &#8226; Hakikisha matumizi yanakuwa ya chini sana ( usiwe na gari la gharama).






















































    UJASIRIAMALI
    KUANZISHA NA KUENDESHA BIASHARA KWA MAFANIKIO

    Somo La 13 : UANDAAJI WA MICHANGANUO YA BIASHARA INAYOFANIKIWA Jumapili 7/3/2010

    Mpango/ Mchanganuo wa biashara ni nini?
    &#8226; Ni andiko rasmi linaloonyesha nia ya kufikia lengo Fulani katika biashara na hueleza mikakati na shighuli mbalimbali zitakazofanywa na mjasiriamali katika kufikia lengo lillilowekwa. Biashara zote ziwe ndogo, za kati au kubwa zinahitaji kuwa na mpango wa biashara ambao ni dira ya kile kinachofanyika.

    &#8226; Ni muhtasari wa mradi wa biashara ulioandaliwa na mjasiriamali ukionyesha mfumo wa uendeshaji biashara, mipango ya fedha, fursa za masoko, wafanyaskazi na mikakati mbalimbal iitakayotumila katika kuendesha biashara.

    &#8226; Mpango wa biashara ni ramani itumiwayo na mjasiriamali katika safari yake ya mafanikio katika biashara. Mpango huu wa biashara hudhibitisha kuwa mjasiriamali amefanya utafiti wa kutosha na amejifunza juu ya fursa zilkizopo katika mradi anaokwenda kuanzisha.

    Sifa za mchanganuo mzuri wa biashara:
    (a) Uwe rahisi kueleweka na utumie lugha rahisi na sahihi.
    (b) Uweze kuelezea mradi wako wa biahara kwa ndani
    (c) Uguse mambo ya msingi k.m masoko, uzarizaji, gharama, uongozi.
    (d) Utoe makisio sahihi za fedha ( fianancial projections)

    Madhumuni ya mpango/ mchanganuo wa biashara:
    (a) Kumsaidia mjasiriamali kuichambua biashara yake kwa undani
    (b) Husaidia kujenga uwezo wa mjasiriamnali katika wazo lake la biashara
    (c) Ni chombo kinachotumiwa na uongozi katika kupanga na kusimamia biashara
    (d) Ni chombo cha mawasiliano chenye nguvu sana huonesha ushindani, wafanyakazi na malengo ya biashara.
    (e) Husadia katika kutafuta mkopo wa biashara
    (f) Huweza kuvutia wafanyakazi

    Nani anapaswa kuandika/ kuandaa mpango wa biashara?
    (a) Mwenye biashara inayoanza
    (b) Mwenye biashara inayoendelea.

    Mfumo wa uandaaji wa mpamgo wa biashara:
    Kuna mifumo mbalimbali ya uandaaji wa michanganuo ya biashara, hii inatoka na utofauti wa miradi na matumizi ya mchanganuo huo. Ufuatao ni mfumo uliokubalika kwa matumizi ya jumlaa;
    (a) Muhtasari wa wazo la biashara ( Executive summary)
    (b) Maelezo kuhusu biashara itayotegemewa kufanyika( Business Description)
    (c) Eleza kuhusu uzalishaji ( Production plan)
    (d) Eleza kuhusu Soko na ushindani ( The market and Competition)
    (e) Utafutaji wa masoko na makisio ya mauzo ( Marketing and selling plan/ strategy)
    (f) Usimamizi/ uendeshaji ( Magement and operations)
    (g) Mpango wa fedha( Financial plan)
    (h) Viambatanisho mbalimbali (Annexes)
    TABLE OF CONTENT

    TABLE OF CONTENT i
    1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1
    2. BUSINESS DESCRIPTION 2
    2.1. Industry Overview 2
    2.2. Description of the Company/Business 3
    2.2.1. Mission Statement 3
    2.2. 2. Vision of the Business 3
    2.2.3. Description of Products 3
    2.2.4. Core Value 3
    2.2.5. Objectives of the Company 3
    2.3. Description of Products 4
    2.4. Company Positioning 4
    2.5. Pricing Strategy 5
    3. PRODUCTION PLAN 6
    3.1. Business Development Status 6
    3.2. Production and Operation Process 6
    3.3. Cost of Products 7
    3.4. Labor Requirement 7
    3.5. Expenses and Capital Requirement 8
    3.5.1. Operating Expenses 8
    3.5.2. Capital Expenses 9
    4. THE MARKET AND COMPETITION 10
    4.1. Customers 10
    4.2. Competition 10
    4.3. Categories of Competition 11
    Example of Competitors 11
    Competitive rating indicators 11
    4.4. SWOT Analysis 11
    4.5. Estimated Sales 12
    5. MARKETING AND SELLING STRATEGY 14
    5.1. Marketing Strategy 14
    5.2. Method of Sales 14
    5.3. Advertising and Promotion 15
    6. MANAGEMENT OF THE BUSINESS 16
    6.1. Description of the Management 16
    6.2. Organization Structure 17
    6.3. Ownership of the Business 17
    6.4. Board of Advisors 17
    6.5. Support Services 18
    7. FINANCIAL PLAN 19
    7.1. Financial Risks 19
    7.2. Descriptive Financial plan 19
    8. Annexes (Attached from page 19 to 25) 20





    BUSSINESS PLAN FOR OPEN GUINEA FOWL RISING PROJECT.





    Strictly Private and Confidential



    TAN FOWL PRODUCTS AND PROCESSING LTD






    Mr. Respicius Shumbusho Damian

    P.O Box 2503, Dar es salaam.
    Mobile: +255 713 428 318
    DAR ES SALAAM
    E-Mail: resp1980@yahoo.com





    29 March 2010


    1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    TAN Fowl Products and Processing LTD is a small scale business planned to deal with keeping guinea fowls (Scientifically called Guinea guinea) in an open mountainous area of North-West Morogoro. It is a demonstration of a unique innovation in the poultry industry in Tanzania. The business planned shall deal with producing, raising, and processing of guinea fowls and earning surplus income from local and foreign tourists who visit the area to study the unique behavior of guinea fowl. The project on the threshold of its operation builds on the advantage demonstrated by the methodology we previously used in running a small project of the same nature in the same areas between June 2008 and August 2009. This previous project used an approach, which is different from the conventional method of guinea fowl rising in Tanzania; especially keeping them as hens are kept. Open Guinea Fowls keeping involves leaving mature fowls to feed on their own, but more challenging being the exercise of nurturing the keets and eliminating their wild characteristic (Habituation). Guinea fowls can hardly stop their wild traits, but through this unique methodology it was demonstrated that its wild behavior could be reduced about 75% and make sure that the changes include laying eggs in artificially made cotton clutches hanged around their stalls, making them eat the formally provided feeds, sleeping in artificially constructed pens and staying comfortable when owners come close.

    This particular approach, involves semi-domestication which means that guinea fowl keepers are supposed to go and stay in the open area free from day to day interference through human activities like crop production, hunting and other noisy activities like transportation. The advantage of this method is that; it allows the guinea fowls to attract other guinea fowls and become part of the owned ones. Moreover, this project operation involves using a modern automated egg turning incubating technology to increase the fowl incubating capacity up to a minimum of 150 keets per month. This rate will make the project able to supply 1400 eggs, 84 kgs of feathers and 1400 processed fowls for meat every month. This will make a total sale of about 218,064,000 Tshs annually, with average monthly income of 18,172,000 Tshs.

    The major products to be supplied by the business include fresh processed guinea fowl meat, fowl eggs, keets for domestication, and fowl feathers for tourist and cultural materials. These products are increasingly becoming important in the market due to the change in feeding habits of the majority of the population. In addition, a guinea fowl is increasingly becoming one of the tourist attractions, though they are rarely available at tourist camping sites in Morogoro. Due to effective methodology, strategic location, technical efficacy, and high market expansion potential, the project is going to perform very well in the shortest possible time.

    The project will be managed by a well experienced team with combined skills in poultry and wildlife industry and continuous training and marketing research shall be a permanent strategy for ensuring that innovation and invention is fully utilized. The project will also employ the best marketing strategy that will encourage not only making sure that potential customers receive products, but also that they clearly know the features that distinguish the products from other related products and the same products produced by our competitors. Quick delivery of services to the customers is our unique method of attracting and retaining customers as an added advantage to quality and healthy safety of the products. The general business analysis including financial and situational analysis portrays that the business is financially productive, technically efficient and socially ethical. Thus, the project implementation shall yield positive support from important stakeholders.
    2. BUSINESS DESCRIPTION

    2.1. Industry Overview
    According to the national SAMPLE CENSUS OF AGRICULTURE 2008, TANZNIA HAS 33,307,248 poultry livestock, where by SHINYANGA is the leading with 2,979,590 followed by mwanza (2,620,818), then Tabora, Iringa, and MBEYA WITH AROUND 2.5 MILLION POULTRIES. Morogoro on the other hand, has grown from 1,609,000 in 2005 to 2100861 in 2008. Dar es salaam which is the leading consumer of poultry products in Tanzania is the lowest producer with 815,871 (the second after Mtwara which is the least in number of poultry). The consumption of chicken and eggs is however growing in Dar es salaam than other parts of the country, which is estimated to be consuming about 14.7% of the country poultry products.

    There are observable and appreciable changes in the eating behavior of poultry product consumers. First of all, meat is becoming a second choice in terms of the prestige of eateries world wide. The market for fish and green vegetables is internationally increasing. This is basically due to the eruption of diseases associated with red meat as well as diseases that can be transmitted to human beings through meat consumption for instance, Rift valley, swine flue, avian flue and even ebora (which created a mysterious claim of death in South-West Uganda. France is the leading country in keeping guinea fowl (Known as pintarde). Still there are evidences including those provided by science specialists of the Kansas State University that the increased consumption of white meat compared to red meat is due to scientific proof that red meet is prone to diseases than white meat.

    It is studied that Guinea-fowl have always been popular in France where some 54 million are produced annually for the table market. Behind this record there is Britain which is said to contribute about 38 million out of the annually consumed guinea fowl meat world wide. In Africa Senegal is the leading country in production of Guinea fowl meat, while Guinea which is the motherland of the white and black colored fowl is estimated to be scrambling to occupy the 11th or 12th position in fowl and fowl products production. In Tanzania, guinea fowl products are at a very entrant stage to markets, though their use is said to be increasing at the rate of about 4.7% annually.

    The changing feeding habit in many countries including Tanzania has influenced the people to slowly shift from consuming red meat to white meat. The white meat concept by 1990s included chicken, pork and rabbit which were sold at a rather cheaper price. During the late 1990s, the outbreak of diseases associated with chicken and pork (avian flue and swine flue in particular), contributed to the quick expansion of the fowl and rabbit meat market. Most of the flocks which can be produced and raised through organic feeding are rather considered important than those fed on chemically produced and preserved feeds. Guinea fowls, rabbit and wild birds like franklins are the most preferred, though their presence in the market is still unsatisfactory.

    Though the sharp drop of broiler chicken compared to indigenous chicken and guinea fowl provides sales advantage for broilers, the market for guinea fowl products has grown than the early 2000s. From this point onward, the market of guinea fowls is expected to by more by 5% annually due to the emerging tourists and cultural initiators as a new important market for fowl products (including feathers).

    2.2. Description of the Company/Business

    TAN fowl products and processing ltd is a new agribusiness and food processing project that is based on a pre test model project that dealt with keeping of semi-domesticated guinea fowl on an open mountainous area of Morogoro. The new project shall deal with technology based hatching, raising and processing and distribution of guinea fowl products including fowl keets, fresh fowl meat and fowl eggs. The pilot project that operated between June 2008 and August 2009 demonstrated that guinea fowl products are highly demanded, but the growing market cannot be satisfied if producers do not use modern technology, which can incubate many keets at once, ensure survival of young keets less than 14 days and make keets habituated. with innovations in unique methods of domestication of ready hatched and grown up fowl (habituation), the project shall be able to hatch not less than 150 keets per month (though the real capacity is 300).

    Moreover, the business implementation aims at raising an average of 2000 fowls monthly by the end of 2011, able to supply 30 healthy fowls daily, equals to 90 kgs, 3kgs of feathers and 100 eggs daily. The first year of the business shall also include business formalization (licensing and registration) and increased marketing as well as application of modern incubation method.

    2.2.1. Mission Statement
    Our mission is be the fathers of guinea fowl keeping in East and Central Africa, through use of modern scientific incubation methods and application of the methodology that makes a fowl, a commercial poultry animal and a real friend of human beings that we can control and make good income from guinea fowl.

    2.2. 2. Vision of the Business
    Our Vision is to apply the unequal approach to guinea fowl keeping and place guinea fowl products production and marketing at the top front of the consumers’ sight and aspiration in and out of Tanzania.

    2.2.3. Description of Products
    TAN Fowl Products and Processing Ltd specialize into producing guinea fowl products, fresh processed fowl meat being a major product. The other products are eggs, keets and fowl feathers. The products are identified and briefly described down here:

    2.2.4. Core Value
    We are a business created to grow in the facet of constructive competition. We do not exist to destroy the competition in the industry since it is through competition that we learn and set viable strategies for success. We believe in superior customer care through efficiency as the single major, and may be the only fair competitive strategy for a visionary business. We will thus learn from both strong and weak competitors is the way that their methodological and technical errors can help us make precautious corrections and become the kings in the industry.

    2.2.5. Objectives of the Company
    The company objectively foresees its future with a major purpose of maintaining the first position in the industry of guinea fowl and their production. It aims at using technological and innovative methods to commercialize guinea fowl in East and central Africa. The specific objectives of the company are listed down
    &#8226; To attain our sales projections through strengthening our marketing team and marketing strategies. It is our goal that up to 31 December 2011 the company achieves a total sales target of 219,864,000 Tshs equals to average monthly sales of 18,322,000 Tshs
    &#8226; To expand our physical operations up to at least 10 regions in Tanzania including Arusha, Dar es salaam, Mwanza, Kilimanjaro, Zanzibar, Tanga and Mbeya. We must equally attain an expansion objective of extending our sales offices to at least three countries in central and East Africa including Uganda and Democratic Republic of Congo.
    &#8226; To maintain a continued growth so that at the end of fourth year of operations we reach a sales target of 260,556,429 Tshs per year equals to 21,713,036 Tshs every month.
    &#8226; To attain the minimum projected growth rates for the second, third, and fourth years of business are expected to be 4%, 6%, and 7.5% respectively.
    &#8226; Our long term objective is to grow into a sustainable business in terms of financial and human resources through investing in skills, technology and financially sound projects related or closer to our the sector of poultry farming.

    2.3. Description of Products

    Product/Service Description of Product/Service
    1 Processed fresh fowl meat We will process and supply fresh fowl meat to the customers including hotels, canteens, households, and other individuals who need fresh fowl meat. The project estimate capacity is supply of 30 processed fresh fowls equals to 90 Kgs daily.
    2 Fowl eggs for incubation and food Fowl eggs will be supplied to those who want to incubate or use them for food.
    3 Fowl keets for domestication and raising
    Young keets of between 14 and 28 days will be sold to people from different regions who aspire to domesticate fowls at their homes. The keets buyers will be given hints on how to continue habituating the keets into semi-domesticated fowls
    4 Fowl feathers for artistic and decoration purpose These are by products of processed fowls, but are highly demanded for cultural activities and traditional home adornment. We estimate to supply an average of 3 Kgs of feathers everyday
    5 Agro-Tourism International and local tourism will be our scheduled service. The visitors can arrange with us and visit the site, among other services our customers will get explanations on adventurous habits of guinea fowls, how to incubate guinea fowls and take care of keets, and on order customers will learn traditional preparation of guinea fowl meat and some will be luck to test guinea fowl meat for their first time.



    2.4. Company Positioning
    We have decided to position ourselves as the most affordable, but efficient and cost effective producers of guinea fowl products in the market. Our selling motto is that; we are the change that can make you a health friend and consumer of guinea fowls. We are not struggling to be the exclusive producers of guinea fowls and guinea fowls products, but to be the leading producer and distributer of guinea fowls and guinea fowl products in East and Central Africa. Thus, our task is to make all those who aspire to learn from us, keep, taste and consume guinea fowl products able to learn, afford and consume them, while we have to keep our commitment to stay the leading.

    2.5. Pricing Strategy
    Decisions regarding the price of the Products offered by TAN Fowl Products and Processing will be based much on the cost we incur in running the business to make sure that any shilling we spend for production, marketing and distribution makes a return. This cannot however be the only criteria so as to avoid the errors of under pricing due to too low cost of production or over pricing due to higher production cost at a time. We will use several factors to reach an optimal pricing policy; some of these factors are.
    a. Profit maximization principle: The objective of the business is to maximize profit; therefore, the venture will set the price to maximize the profit.
    b. General Market Price Survey Versus the product Quality: Quarterly market price surveys shall be continuous including prices of rival products like broiler, indigenous chicken, duck and rabbit, but the price will be relatively set considering the quality of products as opposed the existing broiler market prices.
    c. Cost of developing the products: To avoid operating at loss, the total costs paid by the firm up to the stage that the product reaches the market for sale will determine the price setting. The table in the next page shows a pricing plan for the first year of business


    Product Pricing Plan for the First Year of Business
    Product Estimated Price
    Each fresh processed fowl meat (estimated to be 3 kilograms ) 12,000
    14 days to 28 days Fowl keets (price per keet) 4000
    Fowl egg (price per single egg) 300
    Fowl Feathers (price per kilogram) 6000
    Agro &#8211;tourism (visit per hour without slaughter of a fowl and guided meat preparation per single local tourist)
    * for students in primary and secondary schools 5000
    2000*
    Agro &#8211;tourism (visit per 3 hours and slaughter of a fowl and guided meat preparation per single local tourist)
    * for students in primary and secondary schools 15000
    10000*
    Agro &#8211;tourism (visit per 1 hours without slaughter of a fowl and guided meat preparation per single foreign tourist) 10,000
    Agro &#8211;tourism (visit per 3 hours and slaughter of a fowl and guided meat preparation per single foreign tourist) 25,000







    3. PRODUCTION PLAN

    3.1. Business Development Status
    TAN Fowl products and processing is a start up business. The new project draws an operational methodology and business philosophy from a small business of the same nature that was conducted by the entrepreneur in the same area between June 2008 and August 2009. The completed step in the process of developing the business is the acquisition of land for establishing the project. The site development process which will involve construction and acquisition of required equipments including the incubator is expected to begin in August 2010. A simple schedule of production development and implementation is provided below.


    Business Project Implementation Schedule
    Year 2010 Year 2011
    July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb April May
    Beginning of site construction, acquisition of suppliers of different services
    Laying the site, placing the egg laying clutches, completing the sleeping pens
    Acquisition of incubating machine, acquisition of office at Msanvu
    Recruitment begins, licensing and registration processing
    Collecting the first 200 guinea fowl eggs
    First hatch, production begins


    3.2. Production and Operation Process
    The business will involve a cyclic production process involving several activities as explained. First, construction of fowl pens in an open mountainous area, where by the beginning of August 2010 there will be about 120 seed guineas. Seed guineas will be continuously habituated on staying in the pens which are placed on a single net-stall about 3 meters high. Each pen is supplied with three or two egg laying clutches and the seed guineas (habituated) are used as a stimulus population for continuous habituation of the keets incubated at the site as well as alien wild guineas which visit these grasslands.

    Secondly, the seed guineas are not slaughtered, continuous catching of the new comer guineas and keeping them in separate pens for meat is carried on while incubation of the keets and raising them continues. The fowl meat processing involves catching live fowls and slaughtering them between 8:00 and 9:00hours while the seed fowls have left the place. Slaughtering is conducted in a separate place and is followed by transportation of meat to the distribution site at Msanvu area and directly supplying them to the customers.


    The third production line involves egg collection from clutches, which is done by reducing two or one egg from each clutch every day. The only clutches with healthy eggs are left for incubation. We will use modern auto turn incubators which can incubate between 180 and 240 eggs within 26-28 days. The new keets are kept in a separate net stalls but closer to hen-fowls’ stall for 14 days where they can be sold or left to move freely with the rest of the habituated guinea fowls. Old guineas are not fed, they are left to move and seek food and they come back in the downing of the sun and stay on trees around the pens up to 20:00 or 21:00 hours. Closing the pens is done at 22:00 daily. The business is thus in a production-processing and sell model, buying shall only occur in the beginning where 120 seed guinea fowls and 200 seed eggs shall be acquired through buying. The selection of the production site was due to a unique pattern of behavior including the topographical and weather (an area that has no higher temperature change and unpredicted humidity during hatching)


    3.3. Cost of Products
    The services development for the year 2011 will involve a total cost of Tshs 55,100,000 annually, including direct capital expenses and materials directly used in project operations and employing trainable and skilled people in the project to be obtained at the pre start period. The table below analyses specific costs for developing services. The costs seem to be (excluding only routine operations during the business) higher in the first year since the acquisition of capital goods (which will not be there in the next years since many capital goods will not be needed) require a lot of money. Equally, the budget for employees’ acquisition, professional fees, and business formalization (including licensing and registration, print of receipts, office renting, and logo development) falls in this category. See the table for cost of developing services budget for the project between January and December 2011 below.

    Cost Description Qty Cost each Sum cost
    Attainment of modern incubator 2 2,200,000 4,400,000
    Construction of 10 wooden fowl sleeping pens 10 1,200,000 12,000,000
    Construction of a 10* 4 meters net stall 1 80,000 80,000
    Acquisition of fur and cotton egg laying clutches 30 60,000 1,800,000
    Professional Fees 12 moths 100000 1,200,000
    Rents and Lease 12 moths 360000 4,320,000
    Salaries and wages 12 moths 2360000 28,320,000
    Payroll Taxes 12 moths 236000 2,832,000
    Foods stock for the infant keets (for a year) 1 2,000,000 2,000,000
    1 Motorcycle for delivery of orders to customers 1 1,200,000 1,200,000
    TOTAL 9,796,000
    38,672,000



    3.4. Labor Requirement
    The project requires 11employees for effective running of the operations. The labor type required for the project are mostly the committed and learnable young men and women who are functionally flexible and able to develop skills through continuous on job training and self learning. Formal education will be much more required for specific positions like accountant and wildlife specialist, while for most of the positions selection will aim at attracting the committed, quick trainable and talented individuals who can learn and be developed in different skills. These 11 employees will be employed on basis of formal contracts and be entitled to legal benefits including social security and long term service bonus schemes when there is productivity that has fulfilled the targeted profit for a specified period of time. External Consultation for the first year will be in areas of Business Planning, accounting, project management and Appraisal, HR recruitment and selection, marketing promotion and Market Research. The personnel qualities needed for different functions and remunerations are specified below.

    STAFF POSITION # of staffs QUALIFICATIONS Daily pay Monthly Pay Annual pay

    1 supervisor (Marketing, Sales and Distribution) 1 Diploma or related qualification Marketing, sales, plus certificate in poultry farming 10,000 300,000 3,600,000
    2 Supervisor (operations, and Business Development)
    1 Diploma Agriculture, food Processing, Wildlife plus training in accounting or sales 10,000 300000 3600000
    3 Meat Processors 2 Skills and experience in fresh meat processing/butchery 3571 100,000 2,400,000
    4 Distributors 2 Driving Grade A&D, Good math’s plus marketing and sales skills 3571 100000 2,400,000
    5 Incubation controller 1 Certificate in poultry, modern incubation plus experience 7143 200,000 2,400,000
    6 Agro-Tour Officer 2 Diploma in agribusiness and wildlife management, intensive training and experience in poultry and ecosystem management. 7143 200,000 2,400,000
    7 Guard Security 1 Experience, personal smartness English Speaker , plus trainability and dependability 3571 100,000 1,440,000
    Other Benefits/Bonuses 16,667 500,000 6,000,000
    TOTAL 10 54,523
    1,600,000
    25,800,000



    3.5. Expenses and Capital Requirement

    3.5.1. Operating Expenses
    The operating expenses are expected to be Tshs 156,300,000 in the first year of operation. The expenses during the early age of operations will be finances from the start up capital and within two months the business will be financing its operations through the sales made.

    Operating Expenses months Av. Monthly Yearly
    Advertisement and Promotion 12 50000 600,000
    Communication and transport (Including Fuel) 12 200000 2,400,000
    Delivery 12 10000 120,000
    Miscellaneous 12 20000 240,000
    office and Administration 12 50000 600,000
    Salaries and wages 12 2150000 25,800,000
    Payroll Taxes 12 236000 2,832,000
    Professional Fees 12 100000 1,200,000
    E-Taxes and licenses 1 300000 300,000
    Rents and Lease 12 360000 4,320,000
    Repair and maintenance 12 60000 720,000
    Subscriptions and Dues 12 2000 24,000
    Supplies and stationeries 12 50000 600,000
    Utilities telephones 12 50000 600,000
    Postage and Mails 12 10000 120,000

    Total 3,858,000 153,900,000


    3.5.2. Capital Expenses
    The project implementation will require 23,780,000 Tshs as capital expense. This amount includes the cost of attaining materials and machines needed for the starting of operations including incubating machine, buying 120 seed guinea fowls, 200 seed eggs and constructing pens and net stalls at the cite. Capital expenses are likely to drop during the second and third years of business. The items covered under capital expenses are specifically mentioned down here.

    Capital expenses Unit cost/unit total cost

    Attainment of modern incubator 2 2,200,000 4,400,000
    Construction of 10 wooden fowl sleeping pens 10 1,200,000 12,000,000
    Construction of a 10* 4 meters net stall 1 80,000 80,000
    Acquisition of fur and cotton egg laying clutches 30 60,000 1,800,000
    1 Desktop computer for business information and records 1 400,000 400,000
    Foods stock for the infant keet (for a year) 1 2,000,000 2,000,000
    2 Motorcycles for delivery of orders to customers 1 1,200,000 1,200,000
    120 guinea fowls and 200 eggs 1900000 1900000
    TOTAL 7,140,000 23,780,000







    4. THE MARKET AND COMPETITION

    4.1. Customers
    Guinea fowls have got many categories of customers ranging from local to foreign customers. Most of the customers who are using chicken are likely to become consumers of guinea fowls if they get sensitized and given comparative information on the use of guinea fowl and chicken products. Equally, agro-tourism is becoming an attracting adventure for both local and foreign tourists. This adds students and researchers in wildlife and special characteristics of guinea fowl as unique specie of bird in the world to the list of customers we have. The potential customers of the groups and the estimated percentage of sales we are expected to make to them. The top most customer categories are listed below

    Customer Group % of sale Description
    Farmers want to raise and keep guinea fowls

    26% These will need healthy keets accompanied with guiding information on how to raise guinea fowls. We expect to make good sales to these new keepers all over the country since we will be having unique information on habituation
    Hotels and cafes in the Morogoro town
    21% These will be buying processed meat for their customers. They will help us in popularizing guinea fowls in the market
    Individuals, families and households
    19% Different individuals will come to the site and buy processed as well as live fowls for food (mostly during holidays or special occasions where it can be used as a symbol of distinction).
    Fowls are also used as home alarms as they make noise when a stranger comes at home as well as the house surroundings. Thus many people buy them instead of dogs.
    Tourists who visit Uluguru mountains
    16% Guinea fowls is one of the adventurous birds, tourists would like to visit the places they are found and learn their unique habits
    Cultural decorators and handcraft stores

    12% These need fowl feathers which are attractively decorated for decorating cultural crafts and arts. Some feathers are modified and used to make home decorations and symbolic huts and other clothing materials.
    Students and local Researchers 6% These will occasionally visit the area for research and tour studies. They will have to pay entrance fee for accessing information related to guinea fowls and fowl keeping.



    4.2. Competition
    The competition in this industry is slightly high due to the growth of broiler keeping in Tanzania. This poses the most of the threatening competition, but guinea fowl keeping has a competitive advantage especially due to its foraging ability, hardiness and minimal production input requirements would ensure a reasonable profit, low production costs, premium quality meat, greater capacity to scavenge for insects and grains, better ability to protect itself against predators and better resistance to common poultry parasites and diseases (for example, Newcastle disease and fowl pox)


    4.3. Categories of Competition
    There are no many groups of competitors in guinea fowl rising and guinea fowl products processing. The top competitors include Broiler Keepers (artificially kept broilers), Village indigenous hen keepers, and other micro Guinea scale fowl domesticators. The general competition can be categorized in relation to their competitive capacity rating which will be explained in relation to specific competitive indicators.

    Competition Category Example of Competitors Competitive rating indicators
    Higher Competition Mkuza, Interchick, Amadori Pollo, Twiga aHatcheries, Tanzania Poultry Farms,Ideal Chicks Hatching capacity of 120,000 to 300,000 chicken monthly, operating capital between 20,000,000 and 100,000,000 Tshs, economically stable, technologically strong
    Moderate Competition Kilacha hatcharies-Kilimanjaro, Ruvu JKT, Kiluvya Poultry Products, Kibo Hatcharies, PEFA Hatcharies-Njombe Able to hatch between 30,000 and 40,000 chicks monthly, estimate operating capital 10,000,000 to 30,000,000Tshs, technologically medium, economically satisfactory
    Lower Competition Local guinea fowl domesticators, local indigenous chicken keepers Able to hatch up to 20 chicks/keets month, non-technologies, most keets die, possess between 2 and 10 guinea fowls average.


    4.4. SWOT Analysis

    SWOT analysis demonstrates that the strength and opportunities we can build on are more sound compared to the weaknesses we have and the projected external threats. There are few weaknesses that are likely to affect linear projected performance of the project, but advantages in terms of methodology and possession of key resources can help the project to stand against external threats identified below. Further more, there are legal and economic opportunities that can be utilized to achieve the projected sales and competitive targets in the market. A summary of the SWOT factors is presented in the table below.


    Strengths Opportunities
    &#8226; Readily available open mountainous land of about 12 acres for establishment of the project. Thus, the start up shall not require land acquisition which is currently a problem in establishing new businesses.
    &#8226; The owner and planner of the project and the expected managing team posses unique skills and knowledge relevant to guinea fowl domestication. Specific skills include studying characteristics of guinea fowls, hatchery management, feeding and nurturing of keets and changing them to reduce their wild behavior.
    &#8226; The Executive Director of the project is ready to spend 100% of his time working into the project (full time) without keeping a salaried job elsewhere. This will give the director enough time to effectively plan for the project and make it successful. &#8226; We are the first in the market and we are competing with relatively different or the same but weaker competitors. If we provide efficient services to our customers and conduct strong marketing we are likely to be the most Successful guinea fowl and fowl products producers in east and Central Africa
    &#8226; There is a very quickly growing importance of poultry and livestock tourism in Tanzania. The tourists are interested in visiting unique species of birds including guinea fowl, Franklin, and locally domesticated baboons and monkeys. Thus, this will be an added income generator for our business
    &#8226; Government initiatives to strengthen and support agribusiness and food processing are increasing. Being in such a potential sector we expect to operate in the environment with strong policy support.
    Weakness Threats
    &#8226; The project owner and director has no enough resources to finance the acquisition of capital expenses and different operating expenses including salaries for staff
    &#8226; Lack of access to high quality technology that is supposed to be used in hatching eggs and raising young keets. Careful assessment of the efficiency of technology must be done before starting the project operations
    &#8226; Lack of office premises for administrative and marketing activities for the project. This will result into an added cost since at present the operations have to be conducted in rented office premises
    &#8226; Competition from alternative products like broiler in terms of meet consumers
    &#8226; Most of the competitors and alternative products we are competing with in the market have become popular compared to our own products. It might take us very long to place our products in the hearts and minds of the consumers
    &#8226; There is a generally growing economic slump in and out of Tanzania. Due to this, consumers’ choice depends much on affordability of the products rather than the quality. This can force us to price goods on basis of competitors’ prices rather than quality of our products.


    4.5. Estimated Sales
    The project expects to achieve total annual sales of 219,864,000 in the first year. The sales are expected to grow by 4% during the second year, 6% during the third year and 7.5% during the 4th year of business. The projected growth depends on the reason that the business will be expanding its market and outreach through advertisement and customers referrals as adopted strategies. Since the actual prices of each specific product is hard to establish due to the expected changes in the value of Tanzanian shillings, there prices have been identified as constant. Thus the change in the value of local currency has impact on figures while the growth in percentage of sales and production remains unaffected. Projected growth in sales for the four years is shown below.

    YEAR YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4
    Rate of sales expansion 4.0% 6.0% 7.5%
    Fowl fresh meat - -
    Projected Annual production 16,800 17,472 18,520 19,909
    Projected sales price 144,000 144,000 144,000 144,000
    Total Monthly Sales in Tshs 201,600,000 209,664,000 222,243,840 238,912,128
    Fowl keet - - -
    Projected Annual production 1,344 1,398 1,482 1,593
    Projected sales price 48,000 48,000 48,000 48,000
    Total Monthly Sales in Tshs 5,376,000 5,591,040 5,926,502 6,370,990
    Fowl Feathers - - - -
    Projected Annual production 84 87 93 100
    Projected sales price 72,000 72,000 72,000 72,000
    Total Monthly Sales in Tshs 6,048,000 6,289,920 6,667,315 7,167,364
    Fowl Eggs - - - -
    Projected Annual production 16,800 17,472 18,520 19,909
    Projected sales price 3,600 3,600 3,600 3,600
    Total Monthly Sales in Tshs 5,040,000 5,241,600 5,556,096 5,972,803
    Ago-Tourism Fees - - - -
    Projected Annual Entrant Customers 180 187 198 213
    Projected Fee per Tourist 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000
    Total Monthly Sales in Tshs 1,800,000 1,872,000 1,984,320 2,133,144
    TOTAL MONTHLY SALES 219,864,000 228,658,560 242,378,074 260,556,429
    AVERAGE MONTHLY SALES 18,322,000 19,054,880 20,198,173 21,713,036












    5. MARKETING AND SELLING STRATEGY

    5.1. Marketing Strategy
    TAN Fowl and Fowl Products values the role of marketing as a heart of our business and the major means towards attaining the ends and survival objectives of the organization. A permanent marketing department may be designed to set annual marketing plans and come up with strategies through which effective marketing activities are to be carried out. During the beginning of the business, TAN fowl will adopt Differentiation as the major marketing strategy. Especially, the major pre-occupation of the company will be making our customers learn how our products differ from those of the competitors. We will strive to communicate the distinctive advantage the customers will have by consuming our products as clearly as possible. Specific activities intending to make the company and its products publicized and then to make customers see the difference between our products and the products of the other will be used.

    In the beginning we target the local market, especially hotels and cafes which will be convinced to include guinea fowl in their traditional cuisine menu. For hotels in Morogoro delivery can be made within 15 minutes of order; though for Dar es salaam we must have a marketing representative. Our target market will be divided into marketing niches like current broiler keepers (who are likely to shift to guinea fowl keeping), students, tourists and Muslims who can use guinea fowls as security alarms since they cannot keep dogs. We will start with niches and market segmentation strategies since we will approach the market as followers regarding the competitors as market leaders. When we grow popular, our nichers will have to change suddenly and adopt attack strategies by stressing on our differential advantages and distinctive competence (including habituated fowls, organic meat and specialized knowledge in incubating and taking care of young keets).

    Within a year of business we are likely to have grown in many market niches and made a point of difference to the customers. Thus, we will be strategically free to turn to encirclement marketing strategy, then bypassing strategy and finally defense strategies including flanking, contraction, pre-emptive defense and position defense strategies of marketing. Strategic switches in marketing strategies shall always place us and our products at the buffer zone of the market competition.


    5.2. Method of Sales
    The project will use different methods of sales ranging from direct to more indirect methods depending to the distance between the production place and the consumer, but direct methods of sales are much preferred by the business. We will depend much on direct sales so as to become able to control over our products and where they are sold. Though this may lead to raising cost of sale, but it will allow us to directly communicate with our customers and understand their needs and preferences.

    The methods in preference will include direct delivery of products on order arrangements to the homes or premises of customers by our sales and distribution team. Equally, for customers who come to the site, onsite sales or ground sales methods will be used as another method of sale. In the future we may grow into upcountry and foreign markets and thus decide to use commissioned agents. For those distant markets which we cannot directly conduct personal sales, commission system will be used as a means of creating and incentivizing sales networks.

    5.3. Advertising and Promotion
    The preferred and dominant advertizing strategy will be advertising through the word of mouth. This method is important since it can convey the message to the potential customer in the way as accurate as possible. Since this method is hardly useful for international and distant markets, consumers, referrals accompanied by other methods listed below shall be used wherever appropriate.

    &#8226; Customer Referrals:
    We will strive to save well and retain our customers as a unique and modern way of advertizing products. Based on the principle of superior customer care through efficiency, we have a great belief that when we provide better products to the current customers we are preparing them to go and advertize our service to the new customer. Thus, we will make customers through the customers we currently have.

    &#8226; Electronic Marketing
    We will utilize the advantage of electronics, Information Communication Technology, and science and technology by making the world get informed about us and our products through websites, blogs and emails. Business development service providers and other entrepreneurial networks like Open Mind Tanzania, Urafiki Blog, E-Busnet and Business Development Gateway can efficiently make us known to the world through their websites. Moreover, we will seek the emails of tour guiding companies and camping site and request them to advertise us as we will work with them in symbiotic benefit relations.

    &#8226; Use of Local Media
    Local Televisions and Radio Stations like Abood TV, Abood Radio and Radio Imani will help us to convert our message to the local market concerning our present in the market and the products we provide as well as their features.

    &#8226; Telemarketing
    As one of the best methods of approaching potential customers, we will seek out telephone numbers of hotels in different cities and towns and inform them on the products we have for their customers. Upon agreements we shall request to supply them with sample products in the mean team



    &#8226; Trade Fairs and Exhibitions
    Trade fairs and business exhibitions will be used as golden opportunities to demonstrate the unique and innovative business we have added to the Tanzanian poultry industry. We will also be able to create new trade partners and networks.







    6. MANAGEMENT OF THE BUSINESS

    6.1. Description of the Management
    TAN Fowl and Fowl Products shall be managed by a team of well qualified, skilled and experienced leaders. The management will constitute the board of Advisor, the Executive Director, the Administrative manager, Chief Operations Officer and the Marketing Manager. The rest of the functions are place under the three departments (Operations, Administration and HR, and Marketing) and their supervision entrusted to the line management, which works close and in lateral communication with the central management. In the first and second year, management functions for the company will be fused due to inability of the production to support a too large staff, but with expansion, all the key departments and units will require to be filled. Some key members of the management structure and their key roles are described.

    1. The Executive Director: is an overall controller and in charge of the business. He is responsible for overseeing the business planning, implementation and administration. The ED is responsible and answerable to the board of advisors on maters related to management and performance of the company.
    2. The Administrative and HR Manager: Will possess a master’s degree in public, business administration or human resources management, with demonstrated abilities to develop HR and administrative as well as financial management systems which will align human and other resources with the mission and vision of the company. He will be an effective planner and maintain interdepartmental communication to make sure that the operations are supplied with all the needed resources for productivity.
    3. Chief Operations Officer: The COO will be an experienced and matured graduate, or an active, proactive and creative holder of Masters Degree in Wildlife Management, Agricultural Science, Zoological Research, or poultry and small flock Farming. He must be a clerk of works who cam manage by doing, train and develop skills of other and maintain an up-to-date set of operational policies and procedures that focus on wining commitment and High Performance Work Practices (HPWP)
    4. Marketing Managers: To be a not to sleep marketing activist and theorist who can modify the existing, dream and formulate new marketing plans and strategies to make the company and its marketing team an aggressive marketer. Must also have a demonstrated ability to change the mood of our non marketing staff into a marketing community.
    5. Supervisors/Line managers: This is the first ladder of the management, but mostly valued for success of the business. We will effectively use their contributions in planning since they are the ones who will work close with the people and know the environment of tasks under their supervision.











    6.2. Organization Structure


    6.3. Ownership of the Business
    TAN Fowl Products and Processing is a sole proprietorship business project owned by a single entrepreneur called Respicius Shumbusho Damian who owns 100% of the investment. The owner is an aggressive entrepreneur with a BA(Political Science and Public Administration) and Masters of Arts in Public Administration degrees from the University of Dar es Salaam (in progress). He is a young but economically stubble and frugal entrepreneur with 25,000,000 Tanzanian shillings as equity ready to be invested in this precious economic opportunity.

    6.4. Board of Advisors
    To the moment, the business has no operating board. The planner values the contribution that the company will receive when there is a strong, effective and skilled board of advisors working as a means of perfection to the ends of the company. The business will pull together in three members of the board of advisors, whose skills knowledge and experiences are outlined below.
    Board Member Level Of Education Carrier/Profession Current Occupation and Experience
    Board Member 1 PhD in Agribusiness, or wildlife management Preferably a researcher in the field related Working with a reputable agricultural research institute, or the Sokoine University of Agriculture as a senior researcher
    Board Member 2 PhD in accounting or Economics Senior management in financial Institution Concrete experience through Working in senior management or as an Economist in financial or portfolio institutions
    Cyril Rugambwa Pesha Masters Degree in Law, Accredited Adv. An accredited independent Advocate Currently an independent Advocate, Pesha and Advocates Co. more than 25 years as a senior Lawyer in International Organizations including East African Development Bank.

    6.5. Support Services
    Due to the inability of the business to support all its expertise demands, it will rely on external support service for some of the important expertise required for the best performance of the business. In the beginning, recruitment, selection and induction training shall be conducted by qualified HR Consultant who can help us recruit and select the best out of the rest. This will help the company attain qualified, talented, dependable and retainable employees (especially in the managerial cadres). To keep higher standards of financial and policy compliance, we will also need auditing service from reputable and professionally accredited external auditors who will provide that service annually. Other important service require is legal service which shall be provided by a senior lawyer with approved postgraduate professional accreditation plus a fair track record of performance in business law matters.





































    7. FINANCIAL PLAN

    7.1. Financial Risks
    Like any other businesses, TAN Fowl and Products Processing is likely to encounter a variety of projected or contingent risks. Our role as entrepreneurs is to forecast the possible risks and develop mechanisms of managing them. Among the forecasted and relatively threatening risks associated with the business include the following:

    (a) Pro-Financial Risks: Our quarterly projected revenues and operating costs are difficult to predict and may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter as a result of a variety of factors. Among these factors are:
    &#8226; Changes in our own or competitors' pricing policies as may occur time to time
    &#8226; Fluctuations in expected revenues from Agro-tourists, and keets buyers due to factors like weather which does not support conventional rising of keets.
    &#8226; Timing of costs related to acquisitions or payments, which includes higher costs of fuel, and feeds for keets.
    (b) Operational Risks: To attract and retain users to of our products, we must continue to provide unique specialized products including the style of raising keets and habituation. This confers certain risks including the following:
    &#8226; Anticipated failure of buyers of keets to take care of keets according to our advices, to some can reflect habituation as something not possible
    &#8226; Failure to create and maintain successful strategic alliances with high quality partners due to distance. Since most of such partners are in Dar es salaam, Arusha and abroad.
    &#8226; Failure of the marketing team to build the TAN Fowl Products and Processing brand rapidly and substantially in the market.
    &#8226; In the use of agents and partners in the distant and foreign markets, the agents may advertise products attaching their own values which are sometimes distant from ours.
    (c) Legislative / Legal Risks. Our participation in the poultry industry through large scale commercial keeping of a specie with wild origin presents unique risks:
    &#8226; In other countries like Senegal, Cameroun and Britain the law provides clearly that fowls are legally domesticated, but in Tanzania the law is still virgin. It is difficult to understand the future legality when fowl keeping grows popular.
    &#8226; The potential land we are occupying is not legally approved for any kind of use. May be in the future it becomes discovered for other uses like mining, query or even residences.
    7.2. Descriptive Financial plan
    The Financial annexes in pages 8-10 show the business can sustain itself. For instance, in the income statement shows that the project will make higher profit; this is basically due to the fact that the business itself is operationally cheaper. The sales are expected to grow gradually, since the nature of business encourages gradual increment in number of customers as from the past experience. Most of the operational costs are estimated to be constant and relatively low since the operations do not involve much financing as it is for the initial site development and tooling budget in the capital expenses. Thus the financial projections portray a rather positive growth of the business.

    From the start-up budget, the business financing requires 55,000,000 Tshs which will be used to finance acquisition of the capitals materials including modern incubating machines, 120 seed guinea fowls and 200 eggs. The startup budget includes as well the operating cost which must be covered prior to the launch of the business operations. These include business registration and licensing, consultancy and a contingent budget equals to 12 months salaries and wages of the size of staff for the first year of business operations. Out of the funding needed, 25,000,000 Tshs is expected to come from personal savings and equity while 30,000,000 to be attained as a loan from a commercial Bank. The start up budget and funding requirement analysis is attached in the annexes sheet.



    8. Annexes (Attached from page 19 to 25)
    8.1. Start-up Budget and Funding Requirements (see attached in annex sheet page 19)
    8.2. Cash flow Statement (see attached in annex sheet page 20)
    8.3. Balance Sheet (see attached in annex sheet page 21)
    8.4. Income Statement (see attached in annex sheet page 22)
    8.5. Capital and Operating Expenses Analysis (see attached in annex sheet page 23)
    8.6. Business Productivity and Sales Analysis (see attached in annex sheet page 24)
    8.7. Projected Business Growth in the Four Years (see attached in annex sheet page 25)

    I CURRENTLY MISS SOME RESPONSES ABOUT OPEN MIND TANZANIA
    • RESPICIUS DAMIAN
    • 2008/12/17 1:10 AM

    Kuku Mla Mayai
    Na Respicius Damian

    Ewe wangu mwema kuku, naanza nikusalimu,
    Nisikie huku huku, nitume zangu salamu,
    Ukoka nikutunuku, ewe mwenye roho ngumu,
    Kuku ulaye mayai, bora ukae kuzimu.

    Bora ukae kuzimu, japo wewe u mtamu,
    Nao wako ukarimu, harufu yako ya ndimu,
    Huchelewi kuhukumu, wanao wende kuzimu,
    Kuku ulaye mayai, bora ukae kuzimu.

    Kuku ulaye mayai, humo walimo wanao,
    Matamu tena wadai, mayai yako na yao,
    Ujasiri kimasai, wala mayai ya hao,
    Kuku ulaye mayai, bora ukae kuzimu.

    Kuku uliyelaniwa, fisadi usiye woga,
    Upendaye kusifiwa, kutembea ukikoga,
    Tumbo lako kuvimbiwa, nani aliyekuloga?
    Kuku ulaye mayai, bora ukae kuzimu.

    Uliyotaga ni mia, sasa yako therathini,
    Na yako ni hii nia, kula mengine sabini,
    Moja umekanyagia, kulitia mdomoni,
    Kuku ulaye mayai, bora ukae kuzimu.

    Hakika kuku hufai, kwa nyama wala mayai,
    Umemaliza mayai, vifaranga tunadai,
    Mara mia tukidai, tutapata kuku hai?
    Kuku ulaye mayai, bora ukae kuzimu.

    Kuku umevunja nia, kuishi kufurahia,
    Niayo yaniambia, wewe fisadi timia,
    Wala bila hurumia, hutaki kuatamia,
    Kuku ulaye mayai, bora ukae kuzimu.

    Hutaki kuatamia, faranga kunipatia,
    Wataka miaka mia, nikae mimi nalia,
    Vifaranga nalilia, mayai we wabugia,
    Kuku ulaye mayai, bora ukae kuzimu.

    Bora ukae kuzimu, wewe na wako muzimu,
    Kizazi chako haramu, nacho kikae kuzimu,
    Jina “ufisadi” tamu, lifie huko kuzimu,
    Kuku ulaye mayai, bora ukae kuzimu.

    Hapa petu kisiwani, tule maziwa, asali,
    Enzi zote za amani, tujigambe wala wali.
    Pande zote duniani, tusiwe waswahili,
    Kuku ulaye mayai, bora ukae kuzimu.

    Mbona panya wanicheka, umenivisha aibu,
    Milima yanidharau, umenitwika ububu,
    Naficha uso hakika, wewe ndiwe sababu,
    Kuku ulaye mayai, bora ukae kuzimu.

    Kuku ninakulaana, laana kwako daima,
    Wala mayai waona, kesho utakula nyama,
    Ya kuku utatafuna, wala siyo ya mnyama.
    Kuku ulaye mayai, bora ukae kuzimu.

    Mimi nimeshakuzika, kaburi na yako nia,
    Nataka kupumzika, kuiumba nchi mpya,
    Yenye kuku wasifika, mayai wasojilia,
    Kuku ulaye mayai, bora ukae kuzimu.

    Shairi hili limtungwa na RESPICIUS DAMIANI ikiwa ni salamu za masikitiko kwa viongozi watanzania walio wengi ambao ni mafisadi (MAFISI MAJI) ambao hawana huruma kabisa kwa wazalendo wanaowaongoza. Inaniuma saaaana,..................... sijui nijifunze kutumia bunduki?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
    • RESPICIUS DAMIAN
    • 2008/05/23 2:01 AM


    vIONGOZI WA KITANZANIA WENGI HAWANA MOYO WA UPENDO KWA WALE WAWAONGOZAO, WAMEWEKA MASLAHI BINAFSI MBELE
    • DAMIAN FRANCIS
    • 2008/05/14 1:20 AM
    The Beds of Birds (A Poem)

    Under the orange tree
    Where we all live
    On the blessed root of a tree
    There is a big beautiful bed
    It is calmly laid
    That bed.

    The seven big birds
    Each eats on the tree
    On the leaves of the tree
    And they are all free
    To free from the tree

    But
    The beds are waiting
    Waiting and waiting
    Endlessly
    Birds never come
    They never climb down
    To sooth their beloved beds

    The beds are getting old
    And they are deadly cold
    No bird to lay on them
    They have deserted them
    Like an old woman
    Whose thing is no longer hot
    Deserted by a teen Youngman
    Deserted their beloved beds
    The seven big birds

    What are these birds for?
    And you birds
    What are these beds for?
    They are the beds of birds
    And you re the birds of beds
    So, the birds of beds
    And the beds of birds

    Respicius Damian, the writer of this poem is a junior poet working as a Director of Research, Publication and Information at the Open Mind Tanzania (OMT), P.O.Box 4859, Dar es salaam, or resp1980@hahoo.com



    • Respicius Damian
    • 2008/05/01 3:35 PM

    Asante sana Respicius Damian Shumbusho unatufumbua macho watanzacia kujua uhalisia wa siasa zetu na sababu zake. Endelea hivyo

    Paschal Lungu
    • Paschal Lungu
    • 2008/05/01 3:26 PM
    コメントする









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